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Understanding Leasehold Estates: Estate for Years vs. Tenancy at Will

In real estate, “estate for years” (also known as “tenancy for years”) and “tenancy at will” are two types of leasehold estates, each with distinct characteristics. Here’s a detailed comparison and definition of each:

Estate for Years (Tenancy for Years)

Definition: An estate for years, or tenancy for years, is a leasehold interest in property for a fixed period. This period can be for any length of time – days, months, or years.


  • Fixed Term: The lease has a definite start and end date.
  • No Automatic Renewal: The lease does not automatically renew upon expiration; a new lease agreement is required to continue the tenancy.
  • Binding Agreement: Both landlord and tenant are bound by the terms of the lease for its entire duration.
  • Termination: The lease terminates automatically at the end of the specified term. No notice is required from either party to end the lease.

Example: A tenant signs a lease to rent an apartment for one year, starting on January 1 and ending on December 31. The lease will automatically terminate on December 31 without the need for notice from either party.

Tenancy at Will

Definition: A tenancy at will is a leasehold interest in property that can be terminated at any time by either the landlord or the tenant. This type of tenancy has no fixed duration and continues as long as both parties agree.


  • Indefinite Term: The lease does not have a specified end date and continues until either party decides to terminate it.
  • Termination: Either party can terminate the tenancy at any time, typically with some notice (the required notice period can vary by jurisdiction).
  • Flexible Agreement: The terms of the lease can be changed at any time, provided both parties agree.
  • Informal Nature: This type of tenancy is often more informal and may not involve a written lease agreement.

Example: A tenant rents an apartment without a fixed-term lease. The tenant and landlord agree that the tenant can stay as long as they both are satisfied with the arrangement. Either the tenant or the landlord can decide to terminate the tenancy with a notice period specified by local law or the lease agreement, if any.

Understanding the Key Differences Between Conventional and Nonconventional Mortgage Loans

Conventional Mortgage Loans

  1. Definition: Not insured or guaranteed by the federal government.
  2. Sources: Provided by private lenders such as banks, credit unions, and mortgage companies.
  3. Down Payment: Generally require a higher down payment.
  4. Credit Score: Typically require a higher credit score.
  5. Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI): Required if the down payment is below a certain amount.
  6. Interest Rates: Often have lower interest rates if the borrower has good credit.

Nonconventional Mortgage Loans

  1. Definition: Insured or guaranteed by government agencies.
  2. Sources: Offered through private lenders but backed by government agencies.
  3. Down Payment: Often lower than conventional loans; some programs may offer no down payment.
  4. Credit Score: More lenient credit score requirements; FHA loans can be available to borrowers with lower scores.
  5. Mortgage Insurance:
    • FHA Loans: Require mortgage insurance premiums (MIP).
    • VA Loans: No mortgage insurance but a one-time funding fee.
  6. Interest Rates: Can be competitive but might be slightly higher than conventional loans due to the added risk covered by the government insurance or guarantee.


  • Conventional Loans: Best for borrowers with good credit and a sizable down payment; potentially lower interest rates and no government backing.
  • Nonconventional Loans: Ideal for borrowers with lower credit scores, limited down payment funds, or specific eligibility (like veterans or rural homebuyers); backed by government agencies, offering more flexibility in requirements.


How Military Members, Veterans, and Spouses Can Obtain a Florida Real Estate License

If you are a military member, a veteran, or a spouse seeking to obtain a Florida real estate license, there are specific provisions and benefits designed to assist you. Here’s an overview of the key points:

1. Military Veterans and Spouses:

  • Fee Waivers: Florida waives the initial application, licensing, and unlicensed activity fees for military veterans and their spouses within 60 months of an honorable discharge. This benefit helps reduce the cost of starting a new career in real estate.

2. Active-Duty Military Members:

  • Licensing Reciprocity: Florida offers expedited licensing for active-duty military members and their spouses if they hold a real estate license in another state. This allows for a smoother transition when moving to Florida.
  • License Renewal Extensions: Active-duty military members who are stationed outside of Florida or overseas can request an extension for their license renewal. This extension is typically up to six months after discharge from active duty.

3. Pre-Licensing Education:

  • Education Requirements: All applicants, including military members and spouses, must complete a 63-hour pre-licensing course approved by the Florida Real Estate Commission (FREC).
  • Exam Requirements: After completing the pre-licensing course, applicants must pass the Florida real estate sales associate exam.

4. Application Process:

  • Complete Pre-Licensing Course: Enroll in and complete the required 63-hour pre-licensing course.
  • Submit Application: Apply for your real estate license through the Florida Department of Business and Professional Regulation (DBPR). Include any necessary documentation to qualify for fee waivers or expedited processing.
  • Fingerprinting and Background Check: Submit your fingerprints for a background check. This is a standard requirement for all applicants.
  • Pass the State Exam: Schedule and pass the Florida real estate sales associate exam.

5. Continuing Education:

  • Post-Licensing Education: Complete the required 45-hour post-licensing course within the first renewal period.
  • Ongoing Continuing Education: Complete 14 hours of continuing education every two years to maintain your license.

Steps for Military Members and Spouses to Obtain a Florida Real Estate License:

  1. Verify Eligibility for Fee Waivers/Reciprocity: Check if you qualify for fee waivers or expedited processing based on your military status or being a spouse of an active-duty member.
  2. Complete Required Education: Enroll in and complete the 63-hour pre-licensing course.
  3. Apply for the License: Submit your application to the DBPR, including any supporting military-related documentation.
  4. Fingerprinting: Complete the fingerprinting process for a background check.
  5. Pass the Exam: Schedule and pass the state exam.
  6. Complete Post-Licensing Education: Fulfill the 45-hour post-licensing course requirement within the first renewal period.
  7. Maintain Continuing Education: Complete 14 hours of continuing education every two years.

Helpful Resources:

  • Florida Department of Business and Professional Regulation (DBPR): DBPR Real Estate Page
  • Military and Veteran Spouses: DBPR Military Services
  • Florida Real Estate Commission (FREC): Provides regulatory oversight and additional resources for real estate professionals in Florida.
  • Military OneSource: Offers support and information for military members transitioning to civilian careers.

By taking advantage of these benefits and following the outlined steps, military members, veterans, and their spouses can efficiently obtain and maintain a Florida real estate license.

Understanding Commercial Lease Types: A Guide to Gross, Net, Percentage, Variable, and Ground Leases

These are different types of commercial leases, each with its own structure and terms:

1.) Gross Lease: In a gross lease, the tenant pays a fixed rent amount, and the landlord is responsible for all operating expenses, including property taxes, insurance, maintenance, and utilities. This type of lease is common in residential and some commercial properties like small office spaces or retail shops.
2.) Net Lease: A net lease shifts some of the operating expenses from the landlord to the tenant. There are three main types of net leases:
Single Net Lease: The tenant pays base rent plus property taxes.
Double Net Lease (NN Lease): The tenant pays base rent plus property taxes and insurance.
Triple Net Lease (NNN Lease): The tenant pays base rent plus property taxes, insurance, and maintenance costs.
3.) Percentage Lease: In a percentage lease, the tenant pays a base rent plus a percentage of their gross sales. This type of lease is common in retail properties, where the landlord shares in the tenant’s success by receiving a percentage of their revenue.
4.) Variable Lease: A variable lease is a type of lease where the rent amount can fluctuate based on certain factors, such as changes in operating costs or inflation. It’s designed to adjust the rent to reflect changes in the market or specific conditions outlined in the lease agreement.
5.) Ground Lease: A ground lease is a long-term lease where the tenant leases land from the landlord to build and operate a property. The tenant typically pays rent for the land separately from any buildings or improvements on the land. Ground leases are common in commercial real estate, especially for developments like shopping centers or office buildings.

Each type of lease has its advantages and disadvantages for both landlords and tenants, depending on factors such as risk tolerance, financial considerations, and market conditions.

Understanding the Differences Between Formal and Informal Contracts in Real Estate

In real estate, contracts can be categorized as formal or informal based on their formality, structure, and legal enforceability. Here’s a detailed breakdown of the differences between formal and informal contracts in the context of real estate:

Formal Contracts

  1. Written Agreement: Formal contracts in real estate are always in written form. They detail the terms and conditions clearly and explicitly.
  2. Legally Binding: These contracts are legally enforceable and recognized by courts. They conform to legal requirements and include essential elements such as offer, acceptance, consideration, mutual consent, and legal purpose.
  3. Standardized Forms: Often, formal contracts use standardized forms, especially for common transactions like property sales, leases, or mortgages. These forms ensure that all necessary legal aspects are covered.
  4. Signatures: To be enforceable, formal contracts require the signatures of all parties involved. This indicates that all parties agree to the terms and are bound by them.
  5. Compliance with Statutes: Formal real estate contracts comply with state and local real estate laws, including the Statute of Frauds, which requires certain contracts (e.g., those for the sale of land) to be in writing to be enforceable.
  6. Detailed Terms: The terms and conditions in formal contracts are detailed and specific, covering various aspects such as payment terms, closing dates, contingencies, property description, and disclosures.

Informal Contracts

  1. Oral Agreements: Informal contracts can be verbal agreements or written but lack the formality and structure of a formal contract. While oral agreements can be legally binding, they are much harder to enforce.
  2. Legally Uncertain: These contracts may not always be legally enforceable due to their informal nature. They often lack the detailed elements required by law to be considered binding.
  3. Less Standardization: Informal contracts do not use standardized forms and may vary significantly in structure and content, leading to ambiguities and misunderstandings.
  4. Absence of Signatures: Informal contracts may not always have the signatures of all parties, making it difficult to prove mutual consent and agreement to the terms.
  5. Lack of Compliance: They may not comply with all legal requirements, particularly the Statute of Frauds, which requires certain contracts to be in writing. This can make informal contracts unenforceable in court for certain transactions.
  6. General Terms: The terms in informal contracts tend to be less detailed and specific, often leading to disputes over interpretations and expectations.

Practical Examples

  • Formal Contract Example: A purchase agreement for a home sale, which includes detailed terms about the price, closing date, property condition, contingencies (such as inspections or financing), and signatures from both the buyer and seller.
  • Informal Contract Example: A verbal agreement between a landlord and tenant about renting a property. They might agree on the rent amount and payment dates, but without a written lease, this agreement is informal and less secure.


Understanding Florida’s Prohibition on Dual Agency in Real Estate Transactions

Florida has strict regulations when it comes to real estate practices, particularly regarding dual agency. Dual agency refers to a situation where a real estate agent or broker represents both the buyer and the seller in a real estate transaction. However, Florida law prohibits this practice due to potential conflicts of interest that may arise.

Here are some key points about why Florida does not allow dual agency:

  1. Conflict of Interest: Dual agency can create a conflict of interest because the agent or broker owes fiduciary duties to both parties. This means they are obligated to act in the best interests of both the buyer and the seller, which can be challenging as their interests may conflict.
  2. Fair Representation: Florida’s real estate laws emphasize fair representation for both buyers and sellers. Allowing dual agency could compromise the ability of the agent to provide undivided loyalty, confidentiality, and full disclosure to either party.
  3. Transparency: The state prioritizes transparency in real estate transactions. Buyers and sellers should have confidence that their agent is working exclusively in their best interests without any conflicts that may arise from dual agency arrangements.
  4. Legal Compliance: By prohibiting dual agency, Florida ensures that real estate professionals comply with ethical standards and legal requirements. This helps maintain the integrity of the real estate market and protects consumers from potential conflicts or misconduct.
  5. Alternative Arrangements: In situations where both the buyer and seller are represented by agents from the same brokerage, Florida requires the agents to act as transaction brokers. A transaction broker facilitates the transaction without representing either party’s interests exclusively, ensuring neutrality and fair treatment to both sides.

These regulations align with the broader efforts in real estate to promote transparency, fairness, and ethical conduct. While dual agency is not permitted in Florida, the state’s real estate laws aim to create a balanced and trustworthy environment for all parties involved in property transactions


Guide to Transitioning from Sales Associate to Broker License in Florida Real Estate

In Florida, to become a licensed real estate broker, you need to meet certain requirements, even if you’re currently working as a sales associate. Here are the general steps and requirements to transition from a sales associate to a broker in Florida:

  1. Education: You must complete 72 hours of approved pre-licensing education from a Florida Real Estate Commission (FREC) approved school. This education should cover topics relevant to real estate brokerage, including real estate law, principles, practices, and real estate math.
  2. Experience: As a sales associate, you must have at least 24 months of active real estate experience within the 5 years preceding the application date. This experience should be documented and verifiable through your employing broker.
  3. Application: Submit an application for the broker license to the Florida Department of Business and Professional Regulation (DBPR). You can do this online through the DBPR website.
  4. Exam: Pass the Florida Real Estate Broker Examination. This exam tests your knowledge of real estate principles and laws specific to Florida. You must pass with a score of at least 75%.
  5. Fingerprinting and Background Check: You will need to complete a fingerprinting process and undergo a background check as part of the licensing process. This is to ensure that you meet the character and fitness requirements to hold a real estate license in Florida.
  6. Brokerage Affiliation: You must be affiliated with a licensed Florida real estate brokerage. Your broker license will be issued under this brokerage, and you will operate as a broker associate or managing broker within that brokerage.
  7. Fees: Pay the required application and licensing fees. These fees can vary, so check the current fee schedule on the DBPR website.
  8. Continuing Education: Once licensed as a broker, you will need to fulfill continuing education requirements to maintain your license. This includes completing 60 hours of post-licensing education within your first renewal cycle and then completing 14 hours of continuing education every 2 years thereafter.

It’s important to note that these requirements are subject to change, so it’s always a good idea to check the latest information and guidelines from the Florida Real Estate Commission and the Department of Business and Professional Regulation before proceeding with your application. Additionally, consider consulting with a real estate professional or attorney familiar with Florida real estate law to ensure you meet all the necessary requirements for obtaining a broker license.

Navigating Renewal: Real Estate License Requirements in Florida

In the state of Florida, real estate licenses are typically subject to renewal every two years. However, the specific month for renewal can vary depending on the licensee’s initial licensure date. Generally, licenses expire either on March 31 or September 30 of even-numbered years. Renewal notices are typically issued by the Florida Department of Business and Professional Regulation (DBPR) approximately 90 days before the expiration date. It is crucial for license holders to remain vigilant about their renewal deadlines and ensure compliance with any continuing education requirements to maintain their license in good standing.

As part of the renewal process, licensees are obligated to complete either the 45-Hour Post-Licensing course or the 14-hour Continuing Education course. These educational programs are specifically designed to keep real estate professionals abreast of pertinent laws, regulations, and industry best practices. Given the importance of staying current in a dynamic field like real estate, it is imperative for licensees to consult with the Florida Department of Business and Professional Regulation (DBPR) or their respective licensing authority for precise renewal dates and requirements tailored to their unique circumstances.


Understanding Real Estate Licensing in Florida: Multiple Licenses and Group License Distinctions

In the state of Florida, real estate licenses fall into three main categories: Sales Associate, Broker, and Broker Associate. Here’s how they relate to Multiple Licenses and Group Licenses:

  • Sales Associate License: This license permits individuals to engage in real estate transactions, but they must work under the supervision of a licensed real estate broker. They do not qualify for multiple licenses but sometimes are issued group licenses under an owner-developer.
  • Broker License: Brokers have more experience and education than sales associates. They can work independently and also supervise sales associates. Brokers can hold multiple licenses, meaning they can operate in multiple capacities, such as a broker for their own brokerage and also a sales associate under another brokerage. 
  • Broker Associate License: This license allows individuals to work as real estate brokers but under the supervision of another licensed broker. Broker associates can also hold group licenses under an owner-developer. 

In summary, brokers in Florida can hold multiple licenses. Sales associates and broker associates, on the other hand, can only be issued a group license under an owner-developer.